Resources and Definitions

Resources and Definitions

As you read through the various services offered in our Langhorne-based dental office, please keep in mind that Dr. Inna is proud to provide on-site surgical services. She personally handles procedures such as simple and more complex extractions, third-molar extractions, bone grafts, and implant placement and restoration. For more complicated procedures, such as sinus elevation or sinus lift surgery or connective tissue grafts, Dr. Inna partners with a qualified periodontist who comes into her office to perform the procedure, and together they handle the requisite follow-up services.

Dr. Inna’s on-premises surgeries are performed with patients receiving nitrous oxide-based conscious sedation or prescribed valium; any patient who requires intravenous (IV) sedation is referred to a highly skilled oral surgeon in the Langhorne area.

Arestin-based Antibiotic Therapy

An antibiotic therapy using Arestin, which is a powder-based medication, is typically able to quell any bacteria in your mouth that is a possible contributor to gum disease. The powder is contained in minocycline-filled microspheres. Under this course of treatment, these microspheres are injected into the affected gum pockets and then slowly release the medication over the course of about two or three weeks, thereby remaining in place to fight an infection until your body’s natural defense system can regain control.

Bone Grafts

Whatever the contributing factors were, including tooth loss or gum disease, in scenarios in which there is not enough bone in your jaw, a dental bone graft, which is actually a relatively minor procedure, is called for. In this process, your dentist simply makes an incision to expose the bone in your jaw, and then grafts new bone material to it. Your body then naturally creates new bone cells around the grafted material, building up bone right where you need it.

Bone grafts also help restore your appearance and ensure that any tooth replacements you may receive are stable. socket bone grafts are typically performed simultaneous to a tooth extraction, as a preventive measure against future bone loss and as a placeholder for a future dental implant (which then takes place months later, after the bone has had a chance to set).

Interestingly, there are situations in which the bones used in the grafting procedures are instead from animals whose bones have been sanitized rather than the patient himself or herself.

Botox Therapy

Medical professionals have determined that small injected doses of botox—the very same toxin that can lead to food poisoning (aka botulism)—has positive medical results (e.g., treating an overactive bladder). What’s more, botox has approved usages for its ability to improve one’s aesthetic appearance. Dental patients sometimes elect to have it injected to treat facial wrinkles on their forehead, between their brows, and around the eyes and lips, thereby improving their overall appearance and better enhancing the look of their new smile. Dr. Inna offers this treatment in her Langhorne dental office—as a separate entity or in conjunction with other treatments—so she is happy to discuss which areas of your face would most benefit from this temporary aesthetic treatment, which in most cases lasts about four months.


In the dental world, the word “bridge” is used to describe one strategy that is used to replace one or more missing teeth (as opposed to an implant, which is a different tactic). It is critical to replace missing teeth because, in the event of a tooth loss, nearby teeth may move themselves or begin to tilt over into the empty space. What’s more, teeth in the opposite jaw may also shift up or down into the space, negatively impacting one’s bite and placing unwanted stress on other teeth and jaw joints, possibly causing pain and damage. Dentists can prevent these unwanted and unhealthy side effects of missing teeth by affixing an artificial tooth permanently to adjacent teeth (or even dental implants). These individually created dental bridges include an artificial tooth that works as a placeholder in your mouth.

Ceramic Restorations

Ceramic restorations are an aesthetic and biocompatible choice for restoring a tooth that has suffered decay or damage. Your dentist will determine how to proceed with regards to which type of porcelain to use once he or she takes into account several variables, including tooth contact scenarios and the overall tooth shape and size for the tooth in need of repair. The replacement tooth is manufactured individually—either by hand in a dental lab or via a computerized machine—to meet your unique requirements.


While there is some minor disagreement about at what childhood age someone should start seeing a dentist for routine oral care, typically once every six months, there is no debate about the importance of getting complete dental care throughout your entire lifetime.

Routine dental checkups always include a cleaning by your dentist or your dental hygienist, and usually once a year include X-rays of your mouth. These checkups are important in the prevention of tooth decay, including cavities, as well as in preventing plaque and tartar and other scenarios that can lead to gum disease from gaining momentum. Dentists also check for oral cancers during your visit and can screen for and actually prevent or curb other systemic health issues.

For pediatric patients, there are even more reasons to see a dentist regularly, including for the monitoring and management of tooth development. Other benefits include reinforcing the need and process for good lifetime oral care habits.

Composite Fillings

A composite filling leverages a tooth-colored plastic-and-glass mixture to restore decayed or cavity-filled teeth. Composites restorations can also be used to cosmetically improve your smile by changing the color of or reshaping any disfigured teeth. Patients who elect this cosmetic treatment after putting it off often remark they regret not having done it sooner, as their smile is then both actually healthier and more attractive.


Dental crowns are used to protect, cover, and/or restore the shape of your teeth in circumstances when fillings will not resolve the underlying problem; these “caps” can be fabricated from certain metals, resin, porcelain, or ceramics. Crowns do not require any special care other than regular good oral hygiene and are credited with beautifying the appearance of preexisting teeth.

Deep Cleanings

Deep dental cleanings, which are also referred to as periodontal scaling and root planing, focus on the outer surfaces of the tooth’s roots and below your gum line in addition to handling the more typical cleaning needs of your teeth. This special nonsurgical level of cleaning is called for when tartar buildup or other issues have caused an infection of the gums and/or “pockets” form around teeth, as evidenced by the gumline separating away from one or more teeth. It is critical to remedy this situation because connective tissue loss can lead to bone loss and even tooth loss. Controlling the oral infection and promoting healing is actually critical to improving your heart health as well.

During this process, your dentist (or periodontist) uses either a handheld dental scaler to manually scrape the plaque away, or an ultrasonic tool with a vibrating metal tip plus a water spray to wash tartar away. Ultimately, your healthier gums should reattach to your teeth after a deep cleaning.

Dental Implants

Dental implants are used to replace missing teeth or work to support dentures in certain patients. After a small post made of titanium (the same metal used in many artificial joint and prosthetics) is surgically implanted below the gum line into the jawbone, the implant will fuse with the jawbone over time, and become a permanent fixture in your mouth. During the initial phase of treatment, a specially shaped piece of metal, the abutment, is fastened to the top of the implant; after a period of healing, a new (artificial) tooth that has been specifically cast to match and fit into the individual patient’s mouth is attached to the abutment.

While bridges and dentures can fall out or need replacement, and also typically limit the types of food a patient eats, implants stabilize the jawbone, assisting in the prevention of further tooth loss, all while allowing you to eat whatever you want.


Dentures replace teeth that are missing due to reasons such as gum disease, tooth decay, or injury. Inserting dentures not only make it easier for you to eat and speak, but they can benefit your overall appearance since not having teeth can cause your face to sag and you to look older than you are.

Three types of dentures are available: complete, partial, and implant-retained.

Complete dentures are called for when all of a patient’s teeth are missing for whatever reason, while partial dentures are created for patients who still have some of their natural teeth. Typically, a patient needs to wait about 10 weeks after teeth have been extracted before inserting his or her new complete dentures, as it is important for the gum tissue to heal properly first. Patients can instead opt for an immediate removable denture on the same day as their extractions, but these appliances often require adjustments after your jaw has healed.

As the nomenclature implies, implant-retained dentures are surgically placed in your jawbone via metal studs that have been surgically implanted and allowed to heal in place over time (usually between three and six months). In order to proceed with this option, a patient must have suitable jawbone density, which in some cases is achieved through a sinus lift or bone graft; a patient must also have good overall oral health (e.g., not be suffering from any periodontal disease). Patients who meet all the criteria and undergo the process ultimately enjoy having a custom-made set of stable teeth that do not require the routine extra care that removable dentures call for.


Extractions are usually called for when a tooth is not able to be saved or, in mostly pediatric and young adult patients, when teeth do not follow the traditional aging timeline and emerge or fall out naturally. Extractions are also sometimes required in preparation for future orthodontic work.

Tooth extractions are either simple or surgical, depending on whether a tooth has emerged, so is visible, or is under the gum line, so referred to as impacted. During a simple extraction, a local anesthetic numbs the area around your tooth so you’ll feel only pressure, not pain, during the procedure; an instrument called an elevator is then used to loosen the tooth before it is removed with forceps. During a surgical extraction, either a local or intravenous anesthesia is used. A small incision is then made in your gum tissue near the affected tooth in order to remove it.

Fluoride Treatment

When a highly concentrated form of fluoride is applied to (i.e., painted on) the tooth’s surface as a type of topical fluoride therapy, there are several beneficial results. Examples include the prevention of dentine hypersensitivity or decay and the remineralization of teeth. The varnish is not permanent, but due to its sticky adherent nature, it stays in contact with your tooth surface for several hours and then hardens, making teeth harder; its effects are present for about four months, at which point it should be applied again if your dental health or history dictates doing so.

Platelet-rich Fibrin (PRF)

Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a biomaterial that is derived from human blood via the use of a centrifuge. It is often used in dentistry to improve a patient’s recovery and healing after surgeries and/or for when tissue regeneration is desired. This therapy can be especially helpful in the dental implant installation process, but there are other procedures where it also comes into play. Some patients respond well enough to PRF for it to be used as a single fill material, while others may require PRF in combination with other bone-graft materials.

Porcelain Veneers

Dental veneers, also referred to as dental porcelain laminates or porcelain veneers, are wafer-thin, “shells” of tooth-colored materials that are custom-made to cover the front surface of a patient’s teeth in order to improve the aesthetic appearance of their smile. They can be used to correct teeth that have become discolored as a consequence of other dental work, such as root canals, or due to stains resulting from certain medications prescribed to treat illnesses. Veneers are also an intelligent course of action to mend teeth that have chipped or have worn down or even to fill gaps between teeth.

As their name indicates, they are made from porcelain, which in this application resists stains and reflects light well. By bonding the shells to the front of your teeth, your dentist can effectively change their shape, color, or even overall size.

Root Canals

A root canal treatment is a procedure that can eliminate bacteria from an infected root canal, thereby prevent reinfection and saving the natural tooth. When you undergo a root canal, the inside of your tooth is carefully cleaned and disinfected, and then it is filled and sealed.

This treatment comes into play when a tooth’s nerve and pulp become inflamed due to deep decay; repeated dental procedures on that same tooth; or a crack or chip in the tooth, or even larger fillings. Tooth damage can also be the result trauma to the face.

Routine Cleanings

Routine dental cleanings are recommended for the majority of patients every six months. During a routine cleaning, your dentist, often in conjunction with your dental hygienist, will thoroughly inspect the inside of your mouth as well as your teeth. The cleaning typically involves at least a removal of any tartar and plaque, a thorough high-powered brushing of all teeth, and flossing.


After being painted onto the chewing surfaces of the back molars, sealants are actually thin coatings that protect the surfaces by blocking food and germs. Typically, sealants afford reliable protection against cavities for two years, and continue to show some efficacy for up to four years. Sealants tend to be more commonly used for pediatric patients who are between 6 and 21 years of age.

Sedation (Laughing Gas/Nitrous Oxide)

Nitrous oxide, also often known as “laughing gas,” is a sedative agent that helps make patients more comfortable during certain procedures. It is administered by being inhaled through a small mask that fits over your nose after being mixed with oxygen. Patients remain awake during this form of relaxation sedation, and are able to hear and respond to any requests or directions their dentist may have. Simply breathing normally through your nose brings on the effects of the nitrous oxide in just a few minutes. While under its influence, you may feel lightheaded or feel a tingling or a “heavy” sensation in your arms and legs. Ultimately, though, you should feel calm and comfortable, and its effects wear off soon after the mask is removed. Your dentist will evaluate your individual circumstances regarding your overall comfort with dental procedures and determine when and if nitrous oxide is recommended for you—and when.

Sinus Lifts

Patients who need dental implants but have suffered bone loss can first have a sinus lift, which is also referred to as sinus augmentation, as doing so makes it possible or easier to undergo a dental implant procedure. After the sinus lift, patients who do not have the sufficient bone support necessary for implants then able to do so.

Sinus augmentations increase the amount of bone that is required for dental implants in the upper jaw.

Zoom Whitening

One of the primary reasons Zoom whitening has reached such levels of popularity is that its results are more immediate than many of the over-the-counter at-home alternatives. Other tooth-whitening procedures may take weeks or even months to yield results, and they typically involve the daily use of special toothpastes or chemical-covered oral inserts. With Zoom whitening, a dental specialist couples the application of a whitening gel formulated with hydrogen peroxide and special lighting to facilitate the effects, which are longer lasting than the more primitive at-home treatments. Your smile will ultimately be brighter after having spent a little more than an hour with your dental professional!

DEKA Smart US-20D CO2 Laser

The Smart US-20D CO2 laser has an innovative design and technical capabilities that combine for better accuracy in micro-surgical applications. As a result, most patients have a smoother post-operative recovery.
According to its documentation, DEKA’s proprietary UltraSpeed pulse “allows the clinician the capability to incise tissue with the speed of a scalpel while sealing blood vessels for a bloodless surgical field. The speed of the pulse allows the surrounding tissue time to cool. The result is virtually no trauma to the surrounding tissue. This means faster, more precise incisions, with improved healing properties.”

In fact, the use of this laser often lets dentists complete treatments without the need for sutures. Dr. Inna is proud to include this equipment in her arsenal of dental technologies, thereby ensuring top-notch care for her patients.

PRExion cbct scanner

When it comes to evaluations before procedures, accuracy is critical. Fortunately, Dr. Inna’s technological arsenal also includes a PRExion CBCT scanner. According to the company website, dental professionals can take advantage of its “extraordinary combination of … precise 3D imaging, large image detail, [and low levels of] radiation exposure” in order to leverage “reliable diagnostics and digital planning” initiatives.


According to its documentation, the VELscope® Vx Enhanced Oral Assessment System affords a simple process for the enhanced visualization of mucosal abnormalities. This handheld wireless scope leverages natural tissue fluorescence to highlight issues that might not even be visible to the naked eye. Your dentist can even detect oral cancer and premalignant dysplasia with the aid of this system. Dr. Inna’s implementation of this cutting-edge technology is yet another reason her patients express such overall satisfaction with their dental care.

Download New Patient Forms

We suggest downloading and filling out patient forms before your next visit. Please have these completed prior to your visit.